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Published: May 27, 2022

Maritime Shipping Glossary / Maritime Dictionary

(Marine Shipping Glossary terms are offered by Hellenic Shipping News)

maritime shipping glossary terms and dictionary
Maritime Shipping Glossary Terms

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  • A/B
    Able bodied seaman, a member of the crew who is able to perform all duties of an experienced seaman.
  • A/S
  • AA
    Always afloat
  • AAAA
    Always accessible always afloat
    Always afloat or safely aground
  • AARA
    Amsterdam-Antwerp-Rotterdam Area
  • Abaft
    Toward the rear (stern) of the ship. Behind.
  • Aboard
    On or within the ship
  • Above deck
    On the deck (not over it – see ALOFT)
  • ABT
  • Ad valorum
    Means “at Value” a rate of freight based on the value of the goods.
    Address Commission
  • Addendum
    Additional chartering terms at the end of a charter party
  • Affreightment
    The hiring of a ship in whole or part
  • Aframax
    American Freight Rate Association – appr. 80 000 – 105 000 dwt – term for a tank ship of standard size
    Arrival First Sea Pilot Station (Norway)
  • Aft
    At or towards the stern or rear of a ship
  • AG
    Arabian Gulf – also called PG – Persian Gulf
  • Agent or Ship’s Agent
    Person looking after the interests of a ship whiøe in port. Duties include organising pilotage, towage and berth for the ship, collecting freight and signing bills of lading
  • Aground
    Touching or fast to the bottom
  • AGW
    All going well
  • AHL
    Australian hold ladders
  • Aids to navigation
    Artificial objects to supplement natural landmarks indicating safe and unsafe waters
  • Aloft
    Above the deck of the ship
  • Amidships
    In or toward the centre of the ship
  • Anchor Piling
    Mooring point on the sea bed
  • Anchorage
    A place suitable for anchorage in relation to the wind, seas and bottom
    Antwerp-Hamburg range
  • Antifouling
    Normally contains toxic compounds to prevent marine growth. Non-toxic products are gradually being introduced to the market
  • APS
    Arrival pilot station
  • Aquabreak PX
    Product name for an environmentally-adapted cleaning agent which can be used throughout the ship
  • Aquatuff
    Product name for an environmentally-adapted cleaning agent used in cargo holds
  • AR
    Accounts receivable
  • ARAG
    Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp-Gent range
  • Arbitration
    Method of settling disputes which is usually binding on parties concerned. A clause usually in a charter party
  • ASBA
    American Shipbrokers Association
  • ASPW
    Any safe port in the world
  • Astern
    In the back of the ship, opposite of ahead
    Any time day/night Sundays and holidays Included
  • Athwartships
    At right angles to the centreline of the ship
    Actual times used to count

    • B/C
      Bulk carrier. Single deck ship carrying homogenous unpackaged cargoes. Loaded through large hatchways
    • B/L
      Bill of lading. A document signed by the carrier which acts as a Contract of affreightment, a receipt and evidence of title to the cargo.
    • Backletter
      Where a seller/shipper issues a ‘letter of indemnity’ in favour of the carrier in exchange for a clean bill of lading
    • BAF
      Bunker adjustment factor. A fuel surcharge expressed as a percentage added or subtracted from the freight amount, reflecting the movement in the market place price for bunkers.
    • Bale capacity
      Cubic capacity of a vessels holds to carry packaged dry cargo such as bales/pallets
    • Ballast
      Heavy weight, often sea water, necessary for the stability and safety of a ship which is not carrying cargo
    • Ballast bonus
      Compensation for relatively long ballast voyage
    • Ballast water
      Contains micro-organisms which can cause harm outside their home environment. Ballast water is taken on board during the discharge of a cargo to improve a vessel’s stability, changed while at sea and pumped out when the next cargo is loaded
    • Bareboat
      Charterers hire a vessel without crew. Charterers are responsible for commercial and technical management.
    • Bareboat chtr
      Bareboat charter – Owners lease a specific ship and control its technical management and commercial operations only. Charterers take over all responsibility for the operation of the vessel and expenses for the duration.
    • Barnacles
      Organisms which grow on the underwater hull and increase its resistance to the water
    • BBB
      Before breaking bulk. Refers to freight payments that must be received before discharge of a vessel commences
    • BDI
      Both dates inclusive
    • Beam
      The maximum breadth or the greatest width of a ship
    • Below
      Beneath the deck
    • Benchmarking
      To compare someone or something with the best that can be achieved within a specified field
    • BENDS
      Both ends (load & discharge ports)
    • BI
      Both inclusive
    • Bilge water
      Dirty water which collects in a ship’s bilges and may be contaminated with small quantities of oil from engine room drains, etc.
    • Bilge water flocculant
      Chemical used to separate oil from waste water
    • BIMCO
      The Baltic and International Maritime Council
    • BL1
    • BM
    • BN
      Booking note
    • BOB
      Bunker on board
    • Boffer
      Best offer
    • Bow
      The forward part of a ship
    • Box
      A term used for a container
    • BPM
      Bridge procedure manual
    • Break-Bulk Cargo
      Goods shipped loose in the vessel’s hold and not in container
    • BROB
      Bunkers remaining on board
    • Brokerage
      Percentage of freight payable to broker. (by owners in C/P’s) or applicable to sale or purchase.
    • BSM
      Barber Ship Management
    • BSS
    • BSS 1/1
      Basis 1 port to 1 port
    • BT
      Berth terms
    • Bulk-oil carrier
      Multipurpose vessel built to carry cargoes of coal as well as oil. Most bulk-oil carriers are reinforced to carry ores and are called OBO-ship (ore/bulk/oil)
    • Bulkhead
      A vertical partition separating compartments
    • Bundling
      This is the assembly of pieces of cargo, secured into one manageable unit. This is relevant to items such as structural steel, handrails, stairways etc. Whilst this is a very flexible description, a rule of thumb is to present cargo at a size easily handl
    • Bunkers
      Name given for vessels fuel and diesel oil supplies (Originates from coal bunkers)
    • Buoy
      An anchored float used for marking a position on the water or a hazard or a shoal and for mooring
    • BWAD
      Brackishw water arrival draft

    • C/P
      Charter Party
    • C/SNEE (or Consignee)
      Name of agent, company or person receiving consignment
    • Cabotage
      Coastal trade, i.e. the movement of goods by ship between ports on the same coast or between ports within the same country
    • CAF
      Currency adjustment factor
    • Capesize
      Vessel which is too large to navigate the Panama Canal – appr. 80 000 – 175 000 dwt with a beam of between 42 and 46 metres (the Panama Canal has a max. width of 32 metres), therefore being forced to voyage around the Cape Horn.
    • CAR
      Corrective action request
    • CBA
      Collective bargaining agreement (Salary scales for different nationalities of seamen) Used by crewing.
    • CBFT (or CFT)
      Cubic feet
    • CBM
      Cubic metres
    • CBT
      Clean ballast tanks
    • CEO
      Chiefe executive officer
    • CFC
      Chlorofluorocarbon compounds. See HCFC
    • CFO
      Chief financial officer
    • CFR
      Cost and freight. Cost and freight means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment. The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination BUT the risk of loss of
    • Chart
      A map used by navigators
    • Chartering agent
      Shipbroker acting on behalf of charterer in negotiations leading to the chartering of a ship
    • CHENG
      Chief engineer
    • CHOF
      Chief officer or chief mate, second in command of the vessel
    • CHOPT
      Charterers option
    • CHTRS
    • CIF
      Cost, insurance and freight. Means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment. The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination BUT the risk of loss of or dam
    • CIP
      Carriage and insurance paid to… Means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him but the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination. This means that the buyer bears all
    • CKD
      Completely knocked down
    • Class
      Means the vessel has its construction made according to the rules of a given Classification Society
    • Classification society
      Organisation which carries out surveys of newbuildings and at regular intervals when in commission, setting and maintaining quality standards for ships and their equipment. Acts on behalf of the flag state’s maritime authorities
    • Clean (CPP)
      Refined petrolium products with light color (gas, parafin, gas oil, naphta)
    • CM
      Contingency manual
    • CO2
      Carbon dioxide – a combustion product from burning all types of fuel. The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere may increase the temperature at the Earth’s surface – known as the greenhouse effect
    • COA
      Contract of affreightment – Owners agree to accept a cost per revenue tonne for cargo carried on a specific number of voyages.
    • COACP
      Contract of affreightment charter party
    • COB
      Closing of business
    • COBLDN
      Closing of business London
    • COD
      Cash on delivery
    • COGSA
      Carriage of goods by Sea act
    • Commision
      Shipbroker’s remuneration, normally 1.25 per cent of gross freight. Calculated also for sales and purchases of vessels at one per cent of purchase price
    • Conference
      Organization of a group of lines operating in one trade where the companies agree to use a common tariff. See also Liner Conference.
    • Congestion
      Port/berth delays
    • CONS
    • Consignee
      Name of company or person receiving consignment
    • Container vessel
      Ship specially designed to carry standard containers (TEUs). Generally called Cellular container ship. The larger part of the cargo-carrying capacity consists of containers carried on deck or in cells in the hold. Containers are lifted on and off with spe
    • COP
      Custom of port
    • CP (or C/P)
      Charter party
    • CPD
      Charterers pay dues
    • CPT
      Carriage paid to… Means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him but the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination. This means that the buyer bears all risks and any
    • CQD
      Customary quick despatch
    • CR
      Current rate
    • CRN
    • CROB
      Cargo remaining on board
    • CRT
      Cargo retention clauses, introduced by charterers based on shortage of delivered cargo because of increased oil prices
    • Crude (oil)
      Un-refined oil directly from the well
    • CST
    • CTR
      Container fitted
    • Cubic capacity
      The most important commercial measurement when the cargo is so lightweight that the ship is filled to capacity without being loaded to the load line (freeboard). Capacity is measured in cubic metres or cubic feet (cu.ft.)
    • CVS
      Consecutive voyages

    • D&A
      Drug & Alcohol
    • D/A
      Disbursement account
    • DAF
      Delivered at frontier. Means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on the arriving means of transport not unloaded, cleared for export, but not cleared for import at the named point and place at the frontier, but
    • Damage for detention
      Compensation for delays beyond or instead of demurrage
      Damages for detention. Penalty if cargo is not ready when ship arrives for working (1st day of Laycan). This is not detention which is charged for ships time on delay. If the cargo is ready there is no DAMFORDET.
    • DAPS
      Days all purposes (Total days for loading & discharging)
    • Data entry user
      Reporting unit responsible in Magnitude
    • DDP
      Delivered duty paid. Means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer, cleared for import, and not unloaded from any arriving means of transport at the named place of destination. The seller has to bear all the costs and risks involved in bringing th
    • DDU
      Delivered duty unpaid. Means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer, not cleared for import, and not unloaded from any arriving means of transport at the named place of destination. The seller has to bear the costs and risks involved in bringing
    • Dead freight
      Freight payable by charterers in case they do not supply the agreed quantity of cargo
    • Deck
      A permanent covering over a compartment, hull or any part thereof
    • DEM
      Demurrage (quay rent). Money paid by the shipper for the occupying port space beyond a specified “free time period.
    • Demurrage
      The money payable to the owner for delay for which the owner is not responsible in loading or discharging after the laytime has expired.
    • DEQ
      Delivered ex quay. Means that the seller deliveres when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer not cleared for import on the quay (wharf) at the named port of destination. The seller has to bear costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to
    • DES
      Delivered ex ship. Means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on board the ship not cleared for import at the named port of destination. The seller has to bear all the costs and risks involved in bringing the goo
    • DESP
      Dispatch. Time saved, reward for quick turnaround, in dry cargo only
    • DET
      Detention (See DAMFORDET)
    • DEV
      Deviation. Vessel departure from specified voyage course
    • DFRT
      Deadfreight. Space booked by shipper or charterer on a vessel but not used
      Dispatch half demurrage on all time saved both ends
      Dispatch half demurrage on working time saved both ends
    • Disbursement
      Cost, expenditure, payment
    • DISCH
    • Dispatch
      The money payable by the shipowner to the charterer if the ship completes loading or discharging before the laytime has expired as detailed in a charter party. Also referred to as despatch money.
    • DK

    • Ebb
      A receeding current
    • EC
      East Coast
    • EIU
      Even if used
    • ELVENT
      Electric ventilation
    • EMM
      Environmental management manual
    • Enviro Return Management
      System for legal and environment-friendly management of used ozone-depleting refrigerants
    • Enviroclean
      Product name for an environmentally-adapted degreasing agent for engine rooms and tank cleaning
    • Environmental system inspections
      Inspection of refrigeration systems to ensure optimum operating conditions and prevent leaks
    • EPA
      Environmental Protection Agency
    • ERT
      Emergency response team
    • Escalation clause
      A clause allowing for an adjustment
    • ETA
      Estimated time of arrival
    • ETC
      Estimated time of completion
    • ETD
      Estimated time of departure
    • ETS
      Estimated time of sailing
    • EXW
      Ex. works. Means that the seller delivers when he places the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the seller’s premises or another named place (i.e. works, factory, warehouse, etc.) not cleared for export and not loaded on any collecting vehicle.

    • FAC
      Fast as can (loading or discharging)
    • FAS
      Free alongside ship. Means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the vessel at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss or damage to the goods from that moment. The FAS term requi
    • FCA
      Free to carrier. Means that the seller delivers the goods, cleared for export, to the carrier nominated by the buyer at the named place. It should be noted that the chosen place of delivery has an impact on the obligations of loading and unloading the goo
    • FD (FDIS)
      Free discharge
    • FDD
      Freight demurrage deadfreight
      Freight deemed earned, discountless and non-returnable (refundable) ship and or cargo lost or not lost
    • FDESP
      Free dispatch
    • Feeder
      A loading system for distribution of cargo loaded, or a vessel that is transshipping cargo – e.g. cars or containers
    • Feeder Vessel
      A short-sea vessel used to fetch and carry goods and containers to and from deep sea vessels.
    • Fender
      A cushion, placed between ships, or between a ship and a pier, to prevent damage
    • FEU
      Standard 40’ Container
    • FHEX
      Fridays and holidays excepted
    • FHINC
      Fridays and holidays included
    • FI
      Freight interest insurance
    • FILO
      Free in/liner out. Seafreight with which the shipper pays load costs and the carrier pays for discharge costs.
    • FIO
      Free in/out. Freight booked FIO includes the seafreight, but no loading/discharging costs, i.e. the charterer pays for cost of loading/discharging cargo.
    • FIOS
      Free in/out stowed. As per FIO, but excludes stowage costs.
    • FIOST
      Free in/out and trimmed. Charterer pays for cost of loading/discharging cargo, including stowage and trimming.
    • FIOT
      Free in/out and trimmed. As per FIOS but includes trimming, e.g. the levelling of bulk cargoes. FIOS includes seafreight, but excludes loading/discharging and stowage costs.
    • FIT
      Free in trimmed
    • FIW
      Free in wagon
    • Fixing
      Chartering a vessel
    • Fixture
      Conclusion of shipbrokers negotiations to charter a ship – an agreement
    • Flatpacking
      Cargo to be presented stacked and secured as an integral unit.
    • FLT
      Full liner terms
    • FMC
      Federal Maritime Commission
    • FME
      Force Majeure excepted
    • FMS
    • FO1
      For orders
    • FO2 (IFO)
      Fuel oil/intermediate FO
    • FO3
      Free out
    • FOB
      Free on board. Means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that point. The FOB term requires the seller

    • g/t-km
      Denotes emissions in grams per tonne of cargo shipped over a kilometre
    • GA
      General average or general arrangement plan
    • GA plan
      General arrangement plan
    • Gamazymes
      Bioactive cleaning agents used in galleys, crew quarters and passenger sections on cruise liners
    • GEAR
      A general term for ropes, blocks, tackle and other equipment
    • General cargo
      Goods unpackaged or packaged, but not shipped in bulk
    • GEOROT
      Geographical rotation
    • GL
      General ledger
    • GLS (GLESS)
    • GM
      General manager; head of local entity
    • GN (or GR)
      Grain (Capacity)
    • GNCN or Gencon
      General conditions
    • GO
      Gas oil
    • GP
      Grain capacity. Cubic capacity in ‘grain’
    • GR
      Geographical rotation. Ports in order of calling
    • GRD
    • Green Passport
      A certificate which confirms which materials have been used in a vessel’s construction
    • Gross Tonnage
      (0.2+0.02*log10V)*V, where V is the volume in cubic metres of all enclosed spaces on board
    • GRT
      Gross registered tonnage
    • GSB
      Good, safe berth
    • GSP
      Good, safe port
    • GTEE
    • Gunwale
      The upper edge of a ship’s sides

    • H&M
      Hull and machinery insurance
    • HA
    • Hague rules
      Code of minimum conditions for the carriage of cargo under a Bill of lading
    • Hallmarks
      A mark indicating quality or excellence.
    • Halon
      Previously used on ships as an effective fire-extinguishing medium, harmful to the ozone layer in the atmosphere
    • Handymax
      Dry bulk vessel of appr. 35 000 – 50 000 dwt.
    • Handysize
      Dry bulk vessel or product tanker, 15 000 – 50 000 dwt.
    • Hatch
      An opening in a ship’s deck fitted with a watertight cover
    • HBF
      Harmless bulk fertilizer
    • HCFC
      Hydro-chlorofluorocarbon compounds, such as freon 22 (R22)
      Half dispatch lay time saved both ends
    • HDWTS
      Half dispatch working (or weather) time saved
    • HFC
    • HFO
      Heavy fuel oil. Used in ship’s engines and boiler systems
    • HHDW
      Handy heavy d.w. (scrap)
    • HI
      Hull interest insurance
    • Hire
      T/C remuneration
    • Hire-purchase Charter-Party
      C/P where the charterer gets ownership of the vessel at the conclusion of the C/P
    • HMS
      Heavy metal scraps
    • Hold or HO
      A compartment below deck in a large vessel, used solely for carrying cargo
    • Hull
      The main body of a ship
    • HW
      High water

    • IAS
      International Accounting Standards. (Former name for IFRS.)
    • ICT
      Information communication technology
    • ICW
      Intercoastal waterway : bays, rivers, and canals along the coasts (such as the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts), connected so that vessels may travel without going into the sea
    • IFRS
      International Financial Reporting Standards
    • ILO
      International Labour Organization
    • IMDG
      International Maritime Dangerous Goods code
    • IMO
      International Maritime Organisation. Body created to regulate international maritime trade
    • IMO
      International Maritime Organisation
    • In &/or over
      Goods carried below and/or on deck
    • Incinerator
      Used to burn waste and sludge
    • IND
    • Indemnity
      Compensation for loss/damage or injury
      International Maritime Satellite System
      Carriage of a commodity by different modes of transport, i.e. sea, road, rail and air within a single journey
    • ISM Code
      International Safety Management Code. The objectives of the ISM Code are to ensure safety at sea, prevention of human injury or loss of life, and avoidance of damage to the environment, in particular to the marine environment and to property. The purpose
    • ISMA
      International Ship Managers Association
    • ISO 14000
      ISO standard for environmental management
    • ISO 14001
      International environmental standard
    • ISO 9001
      International quality standard
    • ISPS
      International Ship and Port Facility Security Code. The Objective with the ISPS code is to establish an international framework involving co-operations between contracting governments, governement agencies, local administration and the shipping and port i
    • ITF
      International Transport Federation
    • Itinerary
      Route. Schedule
    • IU
      If used
      If used. Half time actually used to count
    • IWL
      Institute Warranty Limits

    • Jack Tar: Sailors were once called by their first names only, and Jack was their generic name. Tar came from seamen’s custom of waterproofing clothing using tar.
    • Joint service
      Two or more shipping companies jointly operating a service
    • Joint Venture
      A Joint Venture is a contractual arrangement whereby two or more parties control jointly an economic activity. The economic activity is carried through a separate enterprise (company or partnership, it is handled as a jointly controlled enterprise. Joint

    • Kamsarmax – (229 m. (max) 82,000 DWT (approx) )Maximum size allowed for port Kamsar in Equatorial Guinea.
    • Keel
      The centreline of a ship running fore and aft; the backbone of a vessel
    • Knot
      A measurement of speed equal to one nautical mile (6 076 feet) per hour
    • Kommandittselskap (K/S)
      Limited partnership. A form of shipfinancing
    • Kyoto protocol
      International agreement, adopted under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    • L/C
      Letter of credit
    • Lane meter
      A method of measuring the space capacity of ro-ro ships whereby each unit of space (linear meter) is represented by an area of deck 1.0 meter in length x 2.5 meters in width.
    • Lash
      To hold goods in position by use of ropes, wires, chains or straps etc.
    • LAT
      Latitude. The distance north or south of the equator measured and expressed in degrees.
    • Laycan
    • Laytime
      Time at Charterers disposal for purpose of loading/discharging
    • LCR
      Lowest current rate
    • Leasing
      when a ship is leased, the owner may in fact utilize it as in a bareboat or hire-purchase-C/P, but without entering into a charter-party-contract. The price is agreed between the shipping company (lessee) and the vessel’s legal owner – the leasing company
    • Lee
      The side sheltered from the wind
    • Leeward
      The direction away from the wind. Opposite of windward
    • Leeway
      The sideways movement of the ship caused by either wind or current
    • LF
      Load factor. Percentage of cargo or passengers carries e.g. 4 000 tons carried on a vessel of 10 000 capacity has a load factor of 40%
    • Lien
      Retention of property until outstanding debt is paid
    • Liner
      Vessel serving a regular defined route or trade, following a published sailing schedule
    • Liner conference
      Two or more shipping companies operating a service in common between designated areas. Conference partners agree special freight rates and terms for the trade, in order to stabilize market and service
    • Liner service
      Cargoships operating regular schedules between advertised ports
    • Liner terms
      Ship responsible for all costs of loading and discharging
    • LNG
      Liquefied natural gas (mostly methane)
    • LOA
      Length overall (of ships hull)
    • LOA
      Length overall of the vessel
    • Load line
      See Plimsoll line
    • LOF
      Lloyds Open Form
    • LOG
      A record of courses or operation. Also, a device to measure speed
    • LOH
      Loss of hire insurance
    • LOI
      Letter of indemnity
    • LOLO
      Lift on – lift off
    • Longitude
      The distance in degrees east or west of the meridian at Greenwich, England
    • LOW
      Last open water
    • Low NO x nozzles
      Fuel valves specially developed to reduce formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from combustion
    • LPG
      Liquefied petroleum gas – from refineries (motstly propane, butane)
    • LS (or LUMPS)
      Lumpsum freight. Money paid to shipper for a charter of a ship (or portion) up to stated limit irrespective of quantity of cargo
    • LSD
      Lashed secured dunnaged
    • LSFO
      Low-sulphur fuel oil (bunkers)
    • LT1
      Liner terms
    • LT2
      Long tonne = 1 016.05 kilogram (2 240 lbs)
    • LTHH
      Liner terms hook/hook
    • LW
      Low water
    • LYCN
      Laycan (Layday cancelling date)

    • M/V
      Motor vessel/merchant vessel
    • Manifest
      Inventory of cargo (Document discribing the cargo aboard)
    • Maritime lien
      A right in the propery of a ship, conferred by law for seamens wages, salvage, etc.
    • Mark I
      WW designation for ro-ro carriers built in 1978-79
    • Mark II
      WW designation for ro-ro carriers built in 1984
    • Mark III
      WW designation for ro-ro carriers built in 1996
    • Mark IV
      WW designation for ro-ro carriers built in 2000-01
    • Marpol
      IMO convention on the prevention of marine pollution. Regulates environmental pollution by ships
    • MB
      Merchant broker
    • MDO (DO)
      Marine diesel oil
    • MDO/MGO
      Marine diesel oil/marine gas oil
    • MED
      Mediterranean Sea
    • Merger
      The joining of two or more (shipowning) companies
    • MHI
      Car carriers built at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in 2004-06
    • MIAP
      Mortgagee interest additional perils pollution
    • Midship
      Approximately in the location equally distant from the bow and stern
    • MII
      Mortgagee interest insurance
    • MIN/MAX
      Minimum/Maximum (cargo quantity)
    • MM
      Marketing manual
    • MOA
      Memorandum of agreement
      More or less charterers option
    • MOLOO
      More or less owners option. (A margin for shipowner for how much the ship should carry: A moloo of 5% on a 30 000 ton ship gives a cargo between 28 500 and 31 500 tons
    • Montreal protocol
      International agreement which aims to protect the ozone layer. Forms part of the UN Environmental Programme (UNEP)
    • Mooring
      An arrangement for securing a ship to a mooring buoy or pier
    • MSM
      Minimum safe manning (flag states minimum approved manning for a vessel)
    • MT
      Metric tonne (1 000 kilos)
    • Multipurpose ship
      General cargo ship which can also carry containers

    • NAABSA
      Not always afloat but safely aground
    • Navigation
      The art and science of conducting a ship safely from one point to another
    • NCB
      National Cargo Bureau
    • Nesting
      Implies that cargo is presented stacked in the contour of similarly shaped cargo, it may be likened to a stack of plates. This is particularly relevant in the presentation of tankage strakes for transport
    • NIS
      Norwegian International Ship Register
    • Nitrogen oxides (NOx)
      Environmentally-harmful gases formed by the engine’s combustion process
    • NM
      Nautical mile. One minute of latitude; approximately 6 076 feet – about 1/8 longer than the statute mile of 5 280 feet
    • NMD
      Norwegian Maritime Directorate
    • Non-conformity
      ISM definition of non-conformity: Non-conformity means an observed situation where objective evidence indicates the non-fulfilment of a specified requirement. Major non-conformity means an identifiable deviation that poses a serious threat to the safety
    • Non-reversible
      Detention. If loading completed sooner than expected, then saved days will not be added to discharge time allowed.
    • NOR
      Notice of readiness
    • NRT
      Net register tonnage
    • NYPE
      New York Produce Exchange

    • OBO
      Ore/bulk/oil vessel
    • OCIMF
      The Oil Companies International Marine Forum: OCIMF is a voluntary association of oil companies having an interest in the shipment and terminalling of crude oil and oil products. OCIMF is organised to represent its membership before, and to consult with,
    • Off hire
      A chartering term indicating the time a chartered vessel is no longer attracting a daily fixture rate. It arises i.e. upon break down of machinery, equipment or when owing to poor performance such as slower speed than prescribed in the voyage charter, the
    • OO
      Owners option
    • OPA 90
      The Oil Pollution Act of 1990, a US law imposing far-reaching requirements on shipowners, vessels and crews when carrying petroleum products to the US and within the US Economic Zone (200 miles off the coastline). Intriduced after the Exxon Valdez-catastr
    • Ore/oil carrier
      Ship with separate cargo holds for ore cargoes. When the ship is carrying oil, the ore holds may also be filled with oil, in order to utilize the deadweight capacity to the fullest
    • OSH
      Open shelter deck
    • Overboard
      Over the side or out of the ship
    • OWS
    • OWS
      Oily water separator

    • P&I
      Protection and indemnity (Responsibility insurance for the shipowner).
    • Panmax or Panamax
      The largest bulk carrier which can pass through the Panama Canal fully loaded (appr. 80 000 dwt.)
    • PASTUS
      Past Us
    • PC
      Period of charter
    • PCC
      Pure car carrier (vessel type)
    • PCGO
      Part cargo
    • PCT
    • PCTC
      Pure car and truck carrier (vessel type)
    • PDA
      Proforma disbursement account
    • PDPR
      Per day or pro rata (for part of a day)
    • Per diem
      By the day
    • Per se
      By itself
    • PG
      Persian Gulf
    • PHPD
      Per hatch per day
    • Plimsoll mark or line
      An internationally recognised line painted on the side of merchant ships. When a ship is loaded, the water level is not supposed to go above the line. Water can reach different parts of the line as its temperature and saltiness varies with the season and
    • PMS
      Port marine services
    • Pooling
      Cargo or profit sharing by cooperating companies in lines or liner conferences
    • Port
      The left side of a ship looking forward. A harbour.
    • ppm
      Parts per million (1 ppm = 0,000001 or 1 mg/kg)
    • Pratique
      Licence or permission to use a port
    • Preamble
      Introduction to a charter party
    • Proforma
      Estimated account
    • Proforma disbursement account
      Preliminery overview of total port costs from agent
    • Protectionism
      Flag state protection of own shipping by the elimination of certain competitive elements
    • PS&L
      Port service & logistics which includes the product lines PMS, Liner, Logistics and HUB
    • PUS
      Plus us
    • PWWD
      Per weather working day

    • QA
      Quality assurance
    • QHSE
      Quality, Health, Safety & Environment
    • Quadrant
      A fitting on the rubber head to which the steering chains are attached.
    • Quadrant
      Quadrant-shaped flat plate assembly mounted horizontally on top of a rudder stock for to which steering cables/chains are attached in vintage vessels or small craft.
    • Quarantine
      Restricted or prohibited intercourse due to contagious disease.
    • Quarter
      That portion of a vessel’s side near the stern.
    • Quarter
      A side of a ship aft, between the main midship frames and stern. Also a sidde of a ship forward, between the main frames and the stem.
    • Quarter deck
      A term applied to the after portion of a weather deck. In a warship that portion allotted to the use of the officers.
    • Quarter deck
      Full-width raised hull section and deck extending from the aft shoulder to the stern.
    • Quartering sea
      A sea on the quarter (coming from a side of the stern).
    • Quarters
      Living spaces for passengers or personnel. It includes staterooms, dining salons, mess rooms, lounging places, passages connected with the foregoing, etc., individual stations for personnel for fire or boat drill, etc.
    • Quarters bill
      A vessel’s station bill showing duties of crew.
    • Quay
      An artificial wall or bank, usually of stone, made toward the sea at the side of a harbor or river for convenience in loading and unloading vessels.

    • RCVR
    • RECAP
      Recapitulation of the terms and conditions agreed
    • Recovery package
      Advanced equipment package for secure recovery of refrigerants. Satisfies all relevant marine regulations
    • Reefer Vessel
      Vessel with refrigerated cargo hold(s)
    • Refrigerants
      Used in refrigeration and freezing plants
    • Reg (EC) 2037/2000
      EU regulation covering ozone-depleting substances which seeks to protect the ozone layer
    • Reversible
      Detention. If loading completed sooner than expected at load port, then days saved can be added to discharge operations.
    • Ro-ro
      Roll-on, roll-off carrier tailored to transport heavy rolling cargo and static cargoes
    • ROB
      Remaining on board
    • RT
      Revenue Tonne (i.e. 1.0 metric tonne or 1.0 cubic meter, whichever greater). The overall RT is calculated on a line by line basis of the Packing List using the largest amount. The overall freight liability is calculated on the total RT amount, multiplied
    • RT43
      Measure for capacity by a car which is 4.125 m long, 1.550 m wide and 1.420 m high

    • SAR
      Search and Rescue
    • SATPM
      Saturday P.M.
    • SB
      Safe berth
    • SBT
      Segregated ballast tanks
    • SD (or SID)
      Single decker
    • Seafreight
      Costs charged for transporting goods over the sea. This does not cover haulage or loading/discharging costs but the sea transport only
    • Seaworthiness
      Statement of condition of the vessel (valid certificates, fully equipped and manned etc.)
    • Seca
      Sulphur oxide emission control area – a sea area defined by the IMO where the sulphur content of bunkers must not exceed 1,5% or emissions of sulphur oxides to the air must be below 6 g/kWh
    • SELFD
      Self discharging
    • Semi-trailers
      Are usually 12.0 meter flat bed road trailers
    • SF
      Stowage factor. Cubic space (measurement tonne) occupied by one tonne (2,240 lbs/1,000 kgs) of cargo
    • SHEX
      Sundays and holidays excluded
    • SHINC
      Sundays and holidays included
    • Shipbroker
      Person who – on behalf of shipowner/shipper – negotiates a deal for the transportation of cargo at an agreed price. Shipbrokers are also active when shipping companies negotiate the purchasing and selling of ships, both secondhand tonnage and newbuilding
    • Short Sea Shipping
      Short distance international trade. Commonly used for trading between countries in the European Union
    • Skids
      Are bearers (timber or steel) positioned under the cargo to enable forklift handling at port, and for ease of rigging and lashing on board ship.
    • Slide valve
      Fuel valves which are fully emptied on each stroke, and thereby counteract afterburning
    • Sludge
      Mixture of water and oil formed during treatment of heavy fuel oil
    • SMC
      Safety management certificate – ref. ISM Code
    • SN
      Satellite navigation. A form of position finding using radio transmissions from satellites with sophisticated on-board automatic equipment
    • SOC
      Shipper owned container
    • SOF
      Statement of facts
    • SOPEP
      Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan
    • SP
      Safe port
    • Spidering
      Is the strengthening of circular tanks for transport, this prevents the tanks from becoming warped. The tanks are strengthened with steel or wood crossbeams giving a “spider” appearance
    • Spot or spotrate
      Rate for single voyage based on the market situation on the day
    • SQC
      Special Qualification Certificate (issued by flag state)
    • SQM
      Safety quality manager
    • SRBL
      Signing and releasing Bill of lading
    • SSHEX
      Saturdays, Sundays, holidays excluded
      Saturdays, Sundays, holidays included
    • SSMM
      Ship Safety Management Manual
    • Stability
      It is paramount that a vessel is stable in all aspects at all times. When cargo is loaded/discharged, the stability is monitored by a computer, which takes into account the weight and position of cargo within the vessel.
    • Starboard
      Right side of a ship when facing the front or forward end.
    • STCW
      Standards of Training, Certificates and Watchkeeping. Standard that crewing have to comply with. For more information please look at www.imo.org (Human Element – Training and Certification).
    • Stem
      Subject to enough merchandise (availability of cargo). Also, the forward most part of the bow.
    • Stern
      The foremost or after part of a ship
    • Stevedore
      Dockworker handling loading/discharging. Term also used on companies delivering such services
    • SUB Subject (to).
      Depending upon as a condition
    • Subsidiary
      A subsidiary is an investee where the enterprise owns more than 50 per cent and the parent’s power to govern the financial and operating policies or has control over the other enterprise.
    • Suezmax
      The largest tank vessel which can pass through the Suez Canal fully loaded (120 000 -165 000 dwt.)
    • Sulphur oxides (SOx)
      Sulphur in the bunkers oil combines with oxygen in the combustion process to form sulphur oxides. These react with moisture in the air to produce sulphurous and sulphuric acid
    • Supercargo
      Person employed by a ship owner, shipping company, charterer of a ship or shipper of goods to supervise cargo handling operations. Often called a port captain.
    • SWAD
      Salt water arrival draft
    • SWDD
      Salt water departure draft
    • Swedac
      Swedish Board for Accreditation and Conformity Assessment

    • T/C
      Time charter (shipper controls the ship and pays a monthly rent, T/C-hire)
    • Tallyman
      Controls the cargo going into and out of the vessel. Checks that volume and number tallies with the manifests
    • Tanker
      Ship carrying liquid bulk cargoes
    • TBN
      To be named/nominated
    • TBT
      Tributyltin, used in tin-based antifouling
    • TC
      Time charter. Owners agree to hire a particular ship for a set length of time and provide technical management, crewing etc.
    • TCP
      Time charter party
    • Tender
      Proposal, offer, bid for a contract
    • TEU
      Standard 20’ Container
    • Thwartships
      At right angles to the centre-line of the ship
    • Tide
      The periodic rise and fall of water level in the oceans
    • Time bar
      The number of days after comleted voyage before demands have to be stated
    • TMSA
      Tanker Management and Self Assessment. The OCIMF’s Tanker Management and Self-Assessment programme is a tool to help ship operators measure and improve their management systems. The programme encourages ship operators to assess their safety-management sys
    • Topside
      The sides of a ship between the waterline and the deck; sometimes referring to onto or above the deck
    • Tramp shipping
      Ships trading where they can get cargo
    • Transaction currency
      The currency used on a single invoice/voucher
    • Trim
      Fore and aft balance of a ship
    • TTL
    • TW
      Tween decker

    • UER
      Undesired event report
    • ULCC
      Ultra Large Crude Carrier – oil tanker of 300,000 + dwt
    • Unicool
      Barwil Unitor’s maritime refrigerants
    • USC
      Unless sooner commenced
    • UTC
      = GMT
    • UU
      Unless used
      Unless used in which case time actually used to count
    • UKHO
      United Kingdom Hydrographic Office (provides AIO)
    • ULCC
      Ultra large crude carrier. Tanker of deadweight greater than 320,000 tonnes.
    • ULCC
    • Ullage hatch
      A small hinged opening on a tank for gauging or sampling cargo. The ullage is the distance from the top of this hatch to the top of the cargo. It is the “opposite” of innage.
    • Ullage opening
      A small, covered opening in the top of a cargo tank through which measurements are made to determine the level of the liquid in the tank.
    • Umbrella
      A metal shield in the form of a trustrum of qa cone, fitted to the outer casing of the smokestack over the air casing to keep out the weather.
    • Unbend
      To untie.
    • Under below
      A warning from aloft (heads up).
    • Undermanned
      Insufficient number of crew; shorthanded.
    • Undertow
      A subsurface current in a surf.
    • Underway
      Said of a vessel when not at anchor, nor made fast to the shore, or aground.
    • Unitization
      The consolidation of a quantity of individual items into one large shipping unit for easier and faster handling through methods such as palletizing, stripping, slinging and containerization.
    • Unloader
      Port equipment employed to unload ships carrying dry bulk cargo.
    • Unmoor
      To remove the ropes that attach a ship to the shore.
    • Unship
      To remove anything from its usual place. To take apart.
    • Unstuffing (or stripping)
      Unloading of a container.
    • Unwatched
      Said of a lighthouse not tended.
    • Up anchor
      Hoist or haul in the anchor.
    • Upper deck
      A partial deck above the main deck amidships.
    • Upper works
      Superstructures, or deck erections located on or above the weather deck. Sometimes used with reference to a ship’s entire above-water structure.
    • Uptake
      A sheet metal conduit connecting the boiler furnace with thw base of the smokestack. It conveys the smoke and hot gases from the boiler to the stack, and should be made double thickness with an air space between to prevent radiation. Swinging dampers for controlling the fires are fitted in the uptake.
    • USC
      Unless Sooner Commenced
    • USL
      Uniform Shipping Laws (Australian federal code for the design, construction and stability of vessels.)
    • UU
      Unless Used
      Unless Used If Used Actual Time Used To Count

    • VCM
      Vessel contingency manual
    • Viscosity
      A liquid’s resistance to flow
    • VLCC
      Very Large Crude Carrier – oil tanker between 200,000 and 300,000 dwt.
    • VPD
      Vessel pays dues
    • VRPP
      Vessel resonse plan pollution

    • W or WS
      Worldscale (Rating system for tanking. Basis rates for different voyages)
    • Waterline
      A line painted on a hull which shows the point to which a ship sinks when it is properly trimmed
    • Way
      Movement of a ship through water such as headway, sternway or leeway
    • WCCON
      Whether customs cleared or not
    • Weather permitting
      If the weather allows..
    • WIBON
      Whether in berth or not
    • WIFPON
      Whether in free pratique or not
    • Windward
      Toward the direction from which the wind is coming
    • WIPON
      Whether in port or not
    • WLS
      Wilhelmsen Lines Shipowning
    • WLTOHC
      Water line-to-hatch coaming
    • WMC
      Wilhelmsen Marine Consultants
    • WMS
      Wilhelmsen Maritime Services
    • WOG
      Without guarantee
    • WP
      Weather permitting. That time during which weather prevents working shall not count as laytime
    • WPD
      Weather permitting day
    • WRIC
      Wire rods in collis
    • WWD
      Weather working day
    • WWD
      Weather working day (days when loading/ discharging is not interrupted by the weather)
    • WWR
      When, where ready
    • WWWW

    • YAR
      York Antwerp Rules
    • YAW
      To swing or steer off course, as when running with a quartering sea
    • YB
      Yellow Book – onboard the ships on management

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