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A/B Able bodied seaman, a member of the crew who is able to perform all duties of an experienced seaman.
AA Always afloat
AAAA Always accessible always afloat
AAOSA Always afloat or safely aground
AARA Amsterdam-Antwerp-Rotterdam Area
Abaft Toward the rear (stern) of the ship. Behind.
Aboard On or within the ship
Above deck On the deck (not over it – see ALOFT)
Ad valorum Means “at Value” a rate of freight based on the value of the goods.
ADCOM Address Commission
Addendum Additional chartering terms at the end of a charter party
Affreightment The hiring of a ship in whole or part
Aframax American Freight Rate Association – appr. 80 000 – 105 000 dwt – term for a tank ship of standard size
AFSPS Arrival First Sea Pilot Station (Norway)
Aft At or towards the stern or rear of a ship
AG Arabian Gulf – also called PG – Persian Gulf
Agent or Ship’s Agent Person looking after the interests of a ship whiøe in port. Duties include organising pilotage, towage and berth for the ship, collecting freight and signing bills of lading
Aground Touching or fast to the bottom
AGW All going well
AHL Australian hold ladders
Aids to navigation Artificial objects to supplement natural landmarks indicating safe and unsafe waters
Aloft Above the deck of the ship
Amidships In or toward the centre of the ship
Anchor Piling Mooring point on the sea bed
Anchorage A place suitable for anchorage in relation to the wind, seas and bottom
ANTHAM Antwerp-Hamburg range
Antifouling Normally contains toxic compounds to prevent marine growth. Non-toxic products are gradually being introduced to the market
APS Arrival pilot station
Aquabreak PX Product name for an environmentally-adapted cleaning agent which can be used throughout the ship
Aquatuff Product name for an environmentally-adapted cleaning agent used in cargo holds
AR Accounts receivable
ARAG Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp-Gent range
Arbitration Method of settling disputes which is usually binding on parties concerned. A clause usually in a charter party
ASBA American Shipbrokers Association
ASPW Any safe port in the world
Astern In the back of the ship, opposite of ahead
ATDNSHINC Any time day/night Sundays and holidays Included
Athwartships At right angles to the centreline of the ship
ATUTC Actual times used to count
B/C Bulk carrier. Single deck ship carrying homogenous unpackaged cargoes. Loaded through large hatchways
B/L Bill of lading. A document signed by the carrier which acts as a Contract of affreightment, a receipt and evidence of title to the cargo.
Backletter Where a seller/shipper issues a ‘letter of indemnity’ in favour of the carrier in exchange for a clean bill of lading
BAF Bunker adjustment factor. A fuel surcharge expressed as a percentage added or subtracted from the freight amount, reflecting the movement in the market place price for bunkers.
Bale capacity Cubic capacity of a vessels holds to carry packaged dry cargo such as bales/pallets
Ballast Heavy weight, often sea water, necessary for the stability and safety of a ship which is not carrying cargo
Ballast bonus Compensation for relatively long ballast voyage
Ballast water Contains micro-organisms which can cause harm outside their home environment. Ballast water is taken on board during the discharge of a cargo to improve a vessel’s stability, changed while at sea and pumped out when the next cargo is loaded
Bareboat Charterers hire a vessel without crew. Charterers are responsible for commercial and technical management.
Bareboat chtr Bareboat charter – Owners lease a specific ship and control its technical management and commercial operations only. Charterers take over all responsibility for the operation of the vessel and expenses for the duration.
Barnacles Organisms which grow on the underwater hull and increase its resistance to the water
BBB Before breaking bulk. Refers to freight payments that must be received before discharge of a vessel commences
BDI Both dates inclusive
Beam The maximum breadth or the greatest width of a ship
Below Beneath the deck
Benchmarking To compare someone or something with the best that can be achieved within a specified field
BENDS Both ends (load & discharge ports)
BI Both inclusive
Bilge water Dirty water which collects in a ship’s bilges and may be contaminated with small quantities of oil from engine room drains, etc.
Bilge water flocculant Chemical used to separate oil from waste water
BIMCO The Baltic and International Maritime Council
BN Booking note
BOB Bunker on board
Boffer Best offer
Bow The forward part of a ship
Box A term used for a container
BPM Bridge procedure manual
Break-Bulk Cargo Goods shipped loose in the vessel’s hold and not in container
BROB Bunkers remaining on board
Brokerage Percentage of freight payable to broker. (by owners in C/P’s) or applicable to sale or purchase.
BSM Barber Ship Management
BSS 1/1 Basis 1 port to 1 port
BT Berth terms
Bulk-oil carrier Multipurpose vessel built to carry cargoes of coal as well as oil. Most bulk-oil carriers are reinforced to carry ores and are called OBO-ship (ore/bulk/oil)
Bulkhead A vertical partition separating compartments
Bundling This is the assembly of pieces of cargo, secured into one manageable unit. This is relevant to items such as structural steel, handrails, stairways etc. Whilst this is a very flexible description, a rule of thumb is to present cargo at a size easily handl
Bunkers Name given for vessels fuel and diesel oil supplies (Originates from coal bunkers)
Buoy An anchored float used for marking a position on the water or a hazard or a shoal and for mooring
BWAD Brackishw water arrival draft
C/P Charter Party
C/SNEE (or Consignee) Name of agent, company or person receiving consignment
Cabotage Coastal trade, i.e. the movement of goods by ship between ports on the same coast or between ports within the same country
CAF Currency adjustment factor
Capesize Vessel which is too large to navigate the Panama Canal – appr. 80 000 – 175 000 dwt with a beam of between 42 and 46 metres (the Panama Canal has a max. width of 32 metres), therefore being forced to voyage around the Cape Horn.
CAR Corrective action request
CBA Collective bargaining agreement (Salary scales for different nationalities of seamen) Used by crewing.
CBFT (or CFT) Cubic feet
CBM Cubic metres
CBT Clean ballast tanks
CEO Chiefe executive officer
CFC Chlorofluorocarbon compounds. See HCFC
CFO Chief financial officer
CFR Cost and freight. Cost and freight means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment. The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination BUT the risk of loss of
Chart A map used by navigators
Chartering agent Shipbroker acting on behalf of charterer in negotiations leading to the chartering of a ship
CHENG Chief engineer
CHOF Chief officer or chief mate, second in command of the vessel
CHOPT Charterers option
CIF Cost, insurance and freight. Means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment. The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination BUT the risk of loss of or dam
CIP Carriage and insurance paid to… Means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him but the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination. This means that the buyer bears all
CKD Completely knocked down
Class Means the vessel has its construction made according to the rules of a given Classification Society
Classification society Organisation which carries out surveys of newbuildings and at regular intervals when in commission, setting and maintaining quality standards for ships and their equipment. Acts on behalf of the flag state’s maritime authorities
Clean (CPP) Refined petrolium products with light color (gas, parafin, gas oil, naphta)
CM Contingency manual
CO2 Carbon dioxide – a combustion product from burning all types of fuel. The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere may increase the temperature at the Earth’s surface – known as the greenhouse effect
COA Contract of affreightment – Owners agree to accept a cost per revenue tonne for cargo carried on a specific number of voyages.
COACP Contract of affreightment charter party
COB Closing of business
COBLDN Closing of business London
COD Cash on delivery
COGSA Carriage of goods by Sea act
Commision Shipbroker’s remuneration, normally 1.25 per cent of gross freight. Calculated also for sales and purchases of vessels at one per cent of purchase price
Conference Organization of a group of lines operating in one trade where the companies agree to use a common tariff. See also Liner Conference.
Congestion Port/berth delays
Consignee Name of company or person receiving consignment
Container vessel Ship specially designed to carry standard containers (TEUs). Generally called Cellular container ship. The larger part of the cargo-carrying capacity consists of containers carried on deck or in cells in the hold. Containers are lifted on and off with spe
COP Custom of port
CP (or C/P) Charter party
CPD Charterers pay dues
CPT Carriage paid to… Means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him but the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination. This means that the buyer bears all risks and any
CQD Customary quick despatch
CR Current rate
CROB Cargo remaining on board
CRT Cargo retention clauses, introduced by charterers based on shortage of delivered cargo because of increased oil prices
Crude (oil) Un-refined oil directly from the well
CTR Container fitted
Cubic capacity The most important commercial measurement when the cargo is so lightweight that the ship is filled to capacity without being loaded to the load line (freeboard). Capacity is measured in cubic metres or cubic feet (cu.ft.)
CVS Consecutive voyages
D&A Drug & Alcohol
D/A Disbursement account
DAF Delivered at frontier. Means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on the arriving means of transport not unloaded, cleared for export, but not cleared for import at the named point and place at the frontier, but
Damage for detention Compensation for delays beyond or instead of demurrage
DAMFORDET Damages for detention. Penalty if cargo is not ready when ship arrives for working (1st day of Laycan). This is not detention which is charged for ships time on delay. If the cargo is ready there is no DAMFORDET.
DAPS Days all purposes (Total days for loading & discharging)
Data entry user Reporting unit responsible in Magnitude
DDP Delivered duty paid. Means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer, cleared for import, and not unloaded from any arriving means of transport at the named place of destination. The seller has to bear all the costs and risks involved in bringing th
DDU Delivered duty unpaid. Means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer, not cleared for import, and not unloaded from any arriving means of transport at the named place of destination. The seller has to bear the costs and risks involved in bringing
Dead freight Freight payable by charterers in case they do not supply the agreed quantity of cargo
Deck A permanent covering over a compartment, hull or any part thereof
DEM Demurrage (quay rent). Money paid by the shipper for the occupying port space beyond a specified “free time period.
Demurrage The money payable to the owner for delay for which the owner is not responsible in loading or discharging after the laytime has expired.
DEQ Delivered ex quay. Means that the seller deliveres when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer not cleared for import on the quay (wharf) at the named port of destination. The seller has to bear costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to
DES Delivered ex ship. Means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on board the ship not cleared for import at the named port of destination. The seller has to bear all the costs and risks involved in bringing the goo
DESP Dispatch. Time saved, reward for quick turnaround, in dry cargo only
DET Detention (See DAMFORDET)
DEV Deviation. Vessel departure from specified voyage course
DFRT Deadfreight. Space booked by shipper or charterer on a vessel but not used
DHDATSBE Dispatch half demurrage on all time saved both ends
DHDWTSBE Dispatch half demurrage on working time saved both ends
Disbursement Cost, expenditure, payment
Dispatch The money payable by the shipowner to the charterer if the ship completes loading or discharging before the laytime has expired as detailed in a charter party. Also referred to as despatch money.
Ebb A receeding current
EC East Coast
EIU Even if used
ELVENT Electric ventilation
EMM Environmental management manual
Enviro Return Management System for legal and environment-friendly management of used ozone-depleting refrigerants
Enviroclean Product name for an environmentally-adapted degreasing agent for engine rooms and tank cleaning
Environmental system inspections Inspection of refrigeration systems to ensure optimum operating conditions and prevent leaks
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
ERT Emergency response team
Escalation clause A clause allowing for an adjustment
ETA Estimated time of arrival
ETC Estimated time of completion
ETD Estimated time of departure
ETS Estimated time of sailing
EXW Ex. works. Means that the seller delivers when he places the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the seller’s premises or another named place (i.e. works, factory, warehouse, etc.) not cleared for export and not loaded on any collecting vehicle.
FAC Fast as can (loading or discharging)
FAS Free alongside ship. Means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the vessel at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss or damage to the goods from that moment. The FAS term requi
FCA Free to carrier. Means that the seller delivers the goods, cleared for export, to the carrier nominated by the buyer at the named place. It should be noted that the chosen place of delivery has an impact on the obligations of loading and unloading the goo
FD (FDIS) Free discharge
FDD Freight demurrage deadfreight
FDEDANRSAOCLONL Freight deemed earned, discountless and non-returnable (refundable) ship and or cargo lost or not lost
FDESP Free dispatch
Feeder A loading system for distribution of cargo loaded, or a vessel that is transshipping cargo – e.g. cars or containers
Feeder Vessel A short-sea vessel used to fetch and carry goods and containers to and from deep sea vessels.
Fender A cushion, placed between ships, or between a ship and a pier, to prevent damage
FEU Standard 40’ Container
FHEX Fridays and holidays excepted
FHINC Fridays and holidays included
FI Freight interest insurance
FILO Free in/liner out. Seafreight with which the shipper pays load costs and the carrier pays for discharge costs.
FIO Free in/out. Freight booked FIO includes the seafreight, but no loading/discharging costs, i.e. the charterer pays for cost of loading/discharging cargo.
FIOS Free in/out stowed. As per FIO, but excludes stowage costs.
FIOST Free in/out and trimmed. Charterer pays for cost of loading/discharging cargo, including stowage and trimming.
FIOT Free in/out and trimmed. As per FIOS but includes trimming, e.g. the levelling of bulk cargoes. FIOS includes seafreight, but excludes loading/discharging and stowage costs.
FIT Free in trimmed
FIW Free in wagon
Fixing Chartering a vessel
Fixture Conclusion of shipbrokers negotiations to charter a ship – an agreement
Flatpacking Cargo to be presented stacked and secured as an integral unit.
FLT Full liner terms
FMC Federal Maritime Commission
FME Force Majeure excepted
FO1 For orders
FO2 (IFO) Fuel oil/intermediate FO
FO3 Free out
FOB Free on board. Means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that point. The FOB term requires the seller
g/t-km Denotes emissions in grams per tonne of cargo shipped over a kilometre
GA General average or general arrangement plan
GA plan General arrangement plan
Gamazymes Bioactive cleaning agents used in galleys, crew quarters and passenger sections on cruise liners
GEAR A general term for ropes, blocks, tackle and other equipment
General cargo Goods unpackaged or packaged, but not shipped in bulk
GEOROT Geographical rotation
GL General ledger
GLS (GLESS) Gearless
GM General manager; head of local entity
GN (or GR) Grain (Capacity)
GNCN or Gencon General conditions
GO Gas oil
GP Grain capacity. Cubic capacity in ‘grain’
GR Geographical rotation. Ports in order of calling
Green Passport A certificate which confirms which materials have been used in a vessel’s construction
Gross Tonnage (0.2+0.02*log10V)*V, where V is the volume in cubic metres of all enclosed spaces on board
GRT Gross registered tonnage
GSB Good, safe berth
GSP Good, safe port
Gunwale The upper edge of a ship’s sides
H&M Hull and machinery insurance
Hague rules Code of minimum conditions for the carriage of cargo under a Bill of lading
Hallmarks A mark indicating quality or excellence.
Halon Previously used on ships as an effective fire-extinguishing medium, harmful to the ozone layer in the atmosphere
Hatch An opening in a ship’s deck fitted with a watertight cover
HBF Harmless bulk fertilizer
HCFC Hydro-chlorofluorocarbon compounds, such as freon 22 (R22)
HDLTSBENDS Half dispatch lay time saved both ends
HDWTS Half dispatch working (or weather) time saved
HFO Heavy fuel oil. Used in ship’s engines and boiler systems
HHDW Handy heavy d.w. (scrap)
HI Hull interest insurance
Hire T/C remuneration
Hire-purchase Charter-Party C/P where the charterer gets ownership of the vessel at the conclusion of the C/P
HMS Heavy metal scraps
Hold or HO A compartment below deck in a large vessel, used solely for carrying cargo
Hull The main body of a ship
HW High water
IAS International Accounting Standards. (Former name for IFRS.)
ICT Information communication technology
ICW Intercoastal waterway : bays, rivers, and canals along the coasts (such as the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts), connected so that vessels may travel without going into the sea
IFRS International Financial Reporting Standards
ILO International Labour Organization
IMDG International Maritime Dangerous Goods code
IMO International Maritime Organisation. Body created to regulate international maritime trade
IMO International Maritime Organisation
In &/or over Goods carried below and/or on deck
Incinerator Used to burn waste and sludge
Indemnity Compensation for loss/damage or injury
INMARSAT International Maritime Satellite System
INTERMODAL Carriage of a commodity by different modes of transport, i.e. sea, road, rail and air within a single journey
ISM Code International Safety Management Code. The objectives of the ISM Code are to ensure safety at sea, prevention of human injury or loss of life, and avoidance of damage to the environment, in particular to the marine environment and to property. The purpose
ISMA International Ship Managers Association
ISO 14000 ISO standard for environmental management
ISO 14001 International environmental standard
ISO 9001 International quality standard
ISPS International Ship and Port Facility Security Code. The Objective with the ISPS code is to establish an international framework involving co-operations between contracting governments, governement agencies, local administration and the shipping and port i
ITF International Transport Federation
Itinerary Route. Schedule
IU If used
IUHTAUTC If used. Half time actually used to count
IWL Institute Warranty Limits
Jack Tar: Sailors were once called by their first names only, and Jack was their generic name. Tar came from seamen’s custom of waterproofing clothing using tar.
Joint service Two or more shipping companies jointly operating a service
Joint Venture A Joint Venture is a contractual arrangement whereby two or more parties control jointly an economic activity. The economic activity is carried through a separate enterprise (company or partnership, it is handled as a jointly controlled enterprise. Joint
Kamsarmax – (229 m. (max) 82,000 DWT (approx) )Maximum size allowed for port Kamsar in Equatorial Guinea.
Keel The centreline of a ship running fore and aft; the backbone of a vessel
Knot A measurement of speed equal to one nautical mile (6 076 feet) per hour
Kommandittselskap (K/S) Limited partnership. A form of shipfinancing
Kyoto protocol International agreement, adopted under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions
L/C Letter of credit
Lane meter A method of measuring the space capacity of ro-ro ships whereby each unit of space (linear meter) is represented by an area of deck 1.0 meter in length x 2.5 meters in width.
Lash To hold goods in position by use of ropes, wires, chains or straps etc.
LAT Latitude. The distance north or south of the equator measured and expressed in degrees.
Laytime Time at Charterers disposal for purpose of loading/discharging
LCR Lowest current rate
Leasing when a ship is leased, the owner may in fact utilize it as in a bareboat or hire-purchase-C/P, but without entering into a charter-party-contract. The price is agreed between the shipping company (lessee) and the vessel’s legal owner – the leasing company
Lee The side sheltered from the wind
Leeward The direction away from the wind. Opposite of windward
Leeway The sideways movement of the ship caused by either wind or current
LF Load factor. Percentage of cargo or passengers carries e.g. 4 000 tons carried on a vessel of 10 000 capacity has a load factor of 40%
Lien Retention of property until outstanding debt is paid
Liner Vessel serving a regular defined route or trade, following a published sailing schedule
Liner conference Two or more shipping companies operating a service in common between designated areas. Conference partners agree special freight rates and terms for the trade, in order to stabilize market and service
Liner service Cargoships operating regular schedules between advertised ports
Liner terms Ship responsible for all costs of loading and discharging
LNG Liquefied natural gas (mostly methane)
LOA Length overall (of ships hull)
LOA Length overall of the vessel
Load line See Plimsoll line
LOF Lloyds Open Form
LOG A record of courses or operation. Also, a device to measure speed
LOH Loss of hire insurance
LOI Letter of indemnity
LOLO Lift on – lift off
Longitude The distance in degrees east or west of the meridian at Greenwich, England
LOW Last open water
Low NO x nozzles Fuel valves specially developed to reduce formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from combustion
LPG Liquefied petroleum gas – from refineries (motstly propane, butane)
LS (or LUMPS) Lumpsum freight. Money paid to shipper for a charter of a ship (or portion) up to stated limit irrespective of quantity of cargo
LSD Lashed secured dunnaged
LSFO Low-sulphur fuel oil (bunkers)
LT1 Liner terms
LT2 Long tonne = 1 016.05 kilogram (2 240 lbs)
LTHH Liner terms hook/hook
LW Low water
LYCN Laycan (Layday cancelling date)
M/V Motor vessel/merchant vessel
Manifest Inventory of cargo (Document discribing the cargo aboard)
Maritime lien A right in the propery of a ship, conferred by law for seamens wages, salvage, etc.
Mark I WW designation for ro-ro carriers built in 1978-79
Mark II WW designation for ro-ro carriers built in 1984
Mark III WW designation for ro-ro carriers built in 1996
Mark IV WW designation for ro-ro carriers built in 2000-01
Marpol IMO convention on the prevention of marine pollution. Regulates environmental pollution by ships
MB Merchant broker
MDO (DO) Marine diesel oil
MDO/MGO Marine diesel oil/marine gas oil
MED Mediterranean Sea
Merger The joining of two or more (shipowning) companies
MHI Car carriers built at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in 2004-06
Midship Approximately in the location equally distant from the bow and stern
MII Mortgagee interest insurance
MIN/MAX Minimum/Maximum (cargo quantity)
MM Marketing manual
MOA Memorandum of agreement
MOLCHOPT More or less charterers option
MOLOO More or less owners option. (A margin for shipowner for how much the ship should carry: A moloo of 5% on a 30 000 ton ship gives a cargo between 28 500 and 31 500 tons
Montreal protocol International agreement which aims to protect the ozone layer. Forms part of the UN Environmental Programme (UNEP)
Mooring An arrangement for securing a ship to a mooring buoy or pier
MSM Minimum safe manning (flag states minimum approved manning for a vessel)
MT Metric tonne (1 000 kilos)
Multipurpose ship General cargo ship which can also carry containers
NAABSA Not always afloat but safely aground
Navigation The art and science of conducting a ship safely from one point to another
NCB National Cargo Bureau
Nesting Implies that cargo is presented stacked in the contour of similarly shaped cargo, it may be likened to a stack of plates. This is particularly relevant in the presentation of tankage strakes for transport
NIS Norwegian International Ship Register
Nitrogen oxides (NOx) Environmentally-harmful gases formed by the engine’s combustion process
NM Nautical mile. One minute of latitude; approximately 6 076 feet – about 1/8 longer than the statute mile of 5 280 feet
NMD Norwegian Maritime Directorate
Non-conformity ISM definition of non-conformity: Non-conformity means an observed situation where objective evidence indicates the non-fulfilment of a specified requirement. Major non-conformity means an identifiable deviation that poses a serious threat to the safety
Non-reversible Detention. If loading completed sooner than expected, then saved days will not be added to discharge time allowed.
NOR Notice of readiness
NRT Net register tonnage
NYPE New York Produce Exchange
OBO Ore/bulk/oil vessel
OCIMF The Oil Companies International Marine Forum: OCIMF is a voluntary association of oil companies having an interest in the shipment and terminalling of crude oil and oil products. OCIMF is organised to represent its membership before, and to consult with,
Off hire A chartering term indicating the time a chartered vessel is no longer attracting a daily fixture rate. It arises i.e. upon break down of machinery, equipment or when owing to poor performance such as slower speed than prescribed in the voyage charter, the
OO Owners option
OPA 90 The Oil Pollution Act of 1990, a US law imposing far-reaching requirements on shipowners, vessels and crews when carrying petroleum products to the US and within the US Economic Zone (200 miles off the coastline). Intriduced after the Exxon Valdez-catastr
Ore/oil carrier Ship with separate cargo holds for ore cargoes. When the ship is carrying oil, the ore holds may also be filled with oil, in order to utilize the deadweight capacity to the fullest
OSH Open shelter deck
Overboard Over the side or out of the ship
OWS Oily water separator
P&I Protection and indemnity (Responsibility insurance for the shipowner).
Panmax or Panamax The largest bulk carrier which can pass through the Panama Canal fully loaded (appr. 80 000 dwt.)
PASTUS Past Us
PC Period of charter
PCC Pure car carrier (vessel type)
PCGO Part cargo
PCTC Pure car and truck carrier (vessel type)
PDA Proforma disbursement account
PDPR Per day or pro rata (for part of a day)
Per diem By the day
Per se By itself
PG Persian Gulf
PHPD Per hatch per day
Plimsoll mark or line An internationally recognised line painted on the side of merchant ships. When a ship is loaded, the water level is not supposed to go above the line. Water can reach different parts of the line as its temperature and saltiness varies with the season and
PMS Port marine services
Pooling Cargo or profit sharing by cooperating companies in lines or liner conferences
Port The left side of a ship looking forward. A harbour.
ppm Parts per million (1 ppm = 0,000001 or 1 mg/kg)
Pratique Licence or permission to use a port
Preamble Introduction to a charter party
Proforma Estimated account
Proforma disbursement account Preliminery overview of total port costs from agent
Protectionism Flag state protection of own shipping by the elimination of certain competitive elements
PS&L Port service & logistics which includes the product lines PMS, Liner, Logistics and HUB
PUS Plus us
PWWD Per weather working day
QA Quality assurance
QHSE Quality, Health, Safety & Environment
Quadrant A fitting on the rubber head to which the steering chains are attached.
Quadrant Quadrant-shaped flat plate assembly mounted horizontally on top of a rudder stock for to which steering cables/chains are attached in vintage vessels or small craft.
Quarantine Restricted or prohibited intercourse due to contagious disease.
Quarter That portion of a vessel’s side near the stern.
Quarter A side of a ship aft, between the main midship frames and stern. Also a sidde of a ship forward, between the main frames and the stem.
Quarter deck A term applied to the after portion of a weather deck. In a warship that portion allotted to the use of the officers.
Quarter deck Full-width raised hull section and deck extending from the aft shoulder to the stern.
Quartering sea A sea on the quarter (coming from a side of the stern).
Quarters Living spaces for passengers or personnel. It includes staterooms, dining salons, mess rooms, lounging places, passages connected with the foregoing, etc., individual stations for personnel for fire or boat drill, etc.
Quarters bill A vessel’s station bill showing duties of crew.
Quay An artificial wall or bank, usually of stone, made toward the sea at the side of a harbor or river for convenience in loading and unloading vessels.
RECAP Recapitulation of the terms and conditions agreed
Recovery package Advanced equipment package for secure recovery of refrigerants. Satisfies all relevant marine regulations
Reefer Vessel Vessel with refrigerated cargo hold(s)
Refrigerants Used in refrigeration and freezing plants
Reg (EC) 2037/2000 EU regulation covering ozone-depleting substances which seeks to protect the ozone layer
Reversible Detention. If loading completed sooner than expected at load port, then days saved can be added to discharge operations.
Ro-ro Roll-on, roll-off carrier tailored to transport heavy rolling cargo and static cargoes
ROB Remaining on board
RT Revenue Tonne (i.e. 1.0 metric tonne or 1.0 cubic meter, whichever greater). The overall RT is calculated on a line by line basis of the Packing List using the largest amount. The overall freight liability is calculated on the total RT amount, multiplied
RT43 Measure for capacity by a car which is 4.125 m long, 1.550 m wide and 1.420 m high
SAR Search and Rescue
SATPM Saturday P.M.
SB Safe berth
SBT Segregated ballast tanks
SD (or SID) Single decker
Seafreight Costs charged for transporting goods over the sea. This does not cover haulage or loading/discharging costs but the sea transport only
Seaworthiness Statement of condition of the vessel (valid certificates, fully equipped and manned etc.)
Seca Sulphur oxide emission control area – a sea area defined by the IMO where the sulphur content of bunkers must not exceed 1,5% or emissions of sulphur oxides to the air must be below 6 g/kWh
SELFD Self discharging
Semi-trailers Are usually 12.0 meter flat bed road trailers
SF Stowage factor. Cubic space (measurement tonne) occupied by one tonne (2,240 lbs/1,000 kgs) of cargo
SHEX Sundays and holidays excluded
SHINC Sundays and holidays included
Shipbroker Person who – on behalf of shipowner/shipper – negotiates a deal for the transportation of cargo at an agreed price. Shipbrokers are also active when shipping companies negotiate the purchasing and selling of ships, both secondhand tonnage and newbuilding
Short Sea Shipping Short distance international trade. Commonly used for trading between countries in the European Union
Skids Are bearers (timber or steel) positioned under the cargo to enable forklift handling at port, and for ease of rigging and lashing on board ship.
Slide valve Fuel valves which are fully emptied on each stroke, and thereby counteract afterburning
Sludge Mixture of water and oil formed during treatment of heavy fuel oil
SMC Safety management certificate – ref. ISM Code
SN Satellite navigation. A form of position finding using radio transmissions from satellites with sophisticated on-board automatic equipment
SOC Shipper owned container
SOF Statement of facts
SOPEP Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan
SP Safe port
Spidering Is the strengthening of circular tanks for transport, this prevents the tanks from becoming warped. The tanks are strengthened with steel or wood crossbeams giving a “spider” appearance
Spot or spotrate Rate for single voyage based on the market situation on the day
SQC Special Qualification Certificate (issued by flag state)
SQM Safety quality manager
SRBL Signing and releasing Bill of lading
SSHEX Saturdays, Sundays, holidays excluded
SSHINC (or SATSHINC) Saturdays, Sundays, holidays included
SSMM Ship Safety Management Manual
Stability It is paramount that a vessel is stable in all aspects at all times. When cargo is loaded/discharged, the stability is monitored by a computer, which takes into account the weight and position of cargo within the vessel.
Starboard Right side of a ship when facing the front or forward end.
STCW Standards of Training, Certificates and Watchkeeping. Standard that crewing have to comply with. For more information please look at www.imo.org (Human Element – Training and Certification).
Stem Subject to enough merchandise (availability of cargo). Also, the forward most part of the bow.
Stern The foremost or after part of a ship
Stevedore Dockworker handling loading/discharging. Term also used on companies delivering such services
SUB Subject (to). Depending upon as a condition
Subsidiary A subsidiary is an investee where the enterprise owns more than 50 per cent and the parent’s power to govern the financial and operating policies or has control over the other enterprise.
Suezmax The largest tank vessel which can pass through the Suez Canal fully loaded (120 000 -165 000 dwt.)
Sulphur oxides (SOx) Sulphur in the bunkers oil combines with oxygen in the combustion process to form sulphur oxides. These react with moisture in the air to produce sulphurous and sulphuric acid
Supercargo Person employed by a ship owner, shipping company, charterer of a ship or shipper of goods to supervise cargo handling operations. Often called a port captain.
SWAD Salt water arrival draft
SWDD Salt water departure draft
Swedac Swedish Board for Accreditation and Conformity Assessment
T/C Time charter (shipper controls the ship and pays a monthly rent, T/C-hire)
Tallyman Controls the cargo going into and out of the vessel. Checks that volume and number tallies with the manifests
Tanker Ship carrying liquid bulk cargoes
TBN To be named/nominated
TBT Tributyltin, used in tin-based antifouling
TC Time charter. Owners agree to hire a particular ship for a set length of time and provide technical management, crewing etc.
TCP Time charter party
Tender Proposal, offer, bid for a contract
TEU Standard 20’ Container
Thwartships At right angles to the centre-line of the ship
Tide The periodic rise and fall of water level in the oceans
Time bar The number of days after comleted voyage before demands have to be stated
TMSA Tanker Management and Self Assessment. The OCIMF’s Tanker Management and Self-Assessment programme is a tool to help ship operators measure and improve their management systems. The programme encourages ship operators to assess their safety-management sys
Topside The sides of a ship between the waterline and the deck; sometimes referring to onto or above the deck
Tramp shipping Ships trading where they can get cargo
Transaction currency The currency used on a single invoice/voucher
Trim Fore and aft balance of a ship
TW Tween decker
UER Undesired event report
ULCC Ultra Large Crude Carrier – oil tanker of 300,000 + dwt
Unicool Barwil Unitor’s maritime refrigerants
USC Unless sooner commenced
UTC = GMT
UU Unless used
UUIWCTAUTC Unless used in which case time actually used to count
UKHO United Kingdom Hydrographic Office (provides AIO)
ULCC Ultra large crude carrier. Tanker of deadweight greater than 320,000 tonnes.
Ullage hatch A small hinged opening on a tank for gauging or sampling cargo. The ullage is the distance from the top of this hatch to the top of the cargo. It is the “opposite” of innage.
Ullage opening A small, covered opening in the top of a cargo tank through which measurements are made to determine the level of the liquid in the tank.
Umbrella A metal shield in the form of a trustrum of qa cone, fitted to the outer casing of the smokestack over the air casing to keep out the weather.
Unbend To untie.
Under below A warning from aloft (heads up).
Undermanned Insufficient number of crew; shorthanded.
Undertow A subsurface current in a surf.
Underway Said of a vessel when not at anchor, nor made fast to the shore, or aground.
Unitization The consolidation of a quantity of individual items into one large shipping unit for easier and faster handling through methods such as palletizing, stripping, slinging and containerization.
Unloader Port equipment employed to unload ships carrying dry bulk cargo.
Unmoor To remove the ropes that attach a ship to the shore.
Unship To remove anything from its usual place. To take apart.
Unstuffing (or stripping) Unloading of a container.
Unwatched Said of a lighthouse not tended.
Up anchor Hoist or haul in the anchor.
Upper deck A partial deck above the main deck amidships.
Upper works Superstructures, or deck erections located on or above the weather deck. Sometimes used with reference to a ship’s entire above-water structure.
Uptake A sheet metal conduit connecting the boiler furnace with thw base of the smokestack. It conveys the smoke and hot gases from the boiler to the stack, and should be made double thickness with an air space between to prevent radiation. Swinging dampers for controlling the fires are fitted in the uptake.
USC Unless Sooner Commenced
USL Uniform Shipping Laws (Australian federal code for the design, construction and stability of vessels.)
UU Unless Used
UUIUATUTC Unless Used If Used Actual Time Used To Count
VCM Vessel contingency manual
Viscosity A liquid’s resistance to flow
VLCC Very Large Crude Carrier – oil tanker between 200,000 and 300,000 dwt.
VPD Vessel pays dues
VRPP Vessel resonse plan pollution
W or WS Worldscale (Rating system for tanking. Basis rates for different voyages)
Waterline A line painted on a hull which shows the point to which a ship sinks when it is properly trimmed
Way Movement of a ship through water such as headway, sternway or leeway
WCCON Whether customs cleared or not
Weather permitting If the weather allows..
WIBON Whether in berth or not
WIFPON Whether in free pratique or not
Windward Toward the direction from which the wind is coming
WIPON Whether in port or not
WLS Wilhelmsen Lines Shipowning
WLTOHC Water line-to-hatch coaming
WMC Wilhelmsen Marine Consultants
WMS Wilhelmsen Maritime Services
WOG Without guarantee
WP Weather permitting. That time during which weather prevents working shall not count as laytime
WPD Weather permitting day
WRIC Wire rods in collis
WWD Weather working day
WWD Weather working day (days when loading/ discharging is not interrupted by the weather)
WWR When, where ready
WWWW WIBON, WCCON, WIFPON, WIPON
YAR York Antwerp Rules
YAW To swing or steer off course, as when running with a quartering sea